Understanding the nature of the passivation layer enabling reversible calcium plating

J. Forero-Saboya, C. Davoisne, R. Dedryvère, I. Yousef, P. Canepa and Alexandre Ponrouch; Energy Environ. Sci., 817 (2020).


As for other multivalent systems, the interface between the calcium (Ca) metal anode and the electrolyte is of paramount importance for reversible plating/stripping. Here, we combined experimental and theoretical approaches to unveil the potential solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components enabling facile Ca plating. Borates compounds, in the form of cross-linked polymers are suggested as divalent conducting component. A pre-passivation protocol with such SEI is demonstrated and allows to broaden the possibility for electrolyte formulation. We also demonstrated a 10-fold increase in Ca plating kinetics by tuning the cation solvation structure in the electrolyte limiting the degree of contact ion pair.