Understanding the nature of the passivation layer enabling reversible calcium plating

Forero-Saboya J., Davoisne C., Dedryvère R., Yousef I., Canepa P. and Ponrouch A.; Energy Environ. Sci., 817 (2020).


As for other multivalent systems, the interface between the calcium (Ca) metal anode and the electrolyte is of paramount importance for reversible plating/stripping. Here, we combined experimental and theoretical approaches to unveil the potential solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components enabling facile Ca plating. Borates compounds, in the form of cross-linked polymers are suggested as divalent conducting component. A pre-passivation protocol with such SEI is demonstrated and allows to broaden the possibility for electrolyte formulation. We also demonstrated a 10-fold increase in Ca plating kinetics by tuning the cation solvation structure in the electrolyte limiting the degree of contact ion pair.